HRH Tiffany, Princess of Lancashire
Tiffany Tracy McTaggart daughter of Winnifred Florence Fernihough daughter of Edward Stanley Fernihough.
My Grandfather is Edward Stanley Fernihough, direct descendant of William I
He was originally from Liverpool, England.
With love, Tiffany
Early Origins of the Fernihough family
The surname Fernihough was first found in Staffordshire where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor close to the Cheshire border. The Saxon influence of English history diminished after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The language of the courts was French for the next three centuries and the Norman ambience prevailed. But Saxon surnames survived and the family name was first referenced in the year 1332 when Adam de Fernyhough held estates.
1844 Thomas Fernyhough died, having been Governor of the Military Knights of Windsor. In 1828 he wrote a book about the military exploits of the four Fernyhough brothers of Staffordshire. He was a keen genealogist and worked for many Staffordshire families, using his grace and favour residence in Windsor Castle as a convenient locality for researching in national archives. He assisted William Salt in his famous historical collection, which later became the nucleus for the William Salt Library in Stafford.
The office of Governor of the Military Knights of Windsor is part of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, and dates from the mid-sixteenth century.
The following information has been certified.
Research has shown that this surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Few cultures have had the lasting impact on English society as that of the Anglo-Saxons. The Fernihough family history draws upon this heritage as the bearers of the name influenced and were influenced by the history of the English nation. Historians have carefully scrutinized such ancient manuscripts as the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086 A.D., the Ragman Rolls (1291-1296), the Curia Regis Rolls, the Pipe Rolls, the Hearth Rolls, parish registers, baptismals, tax records and other ancient documents and found the first record of the name Fernihough in Staffordshire where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor close to the Cheshire border. The Saxon influence of English history diminished after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The language of the courts was French for the next three centuries and the Norman ambience prevailed. But Saxon surnames survived and the family name was first referenced in the year 1332 when Adam de Fernyhough held estates.
Many different spellings of the surname were found in the archives researched. Although the spelling Fernihough occurred in many manuscripts, from time to time the surname was spelt Fernihough, Ferneyhough, Fernyhough, Fearnyhough, Fernyough, Ferniho, Fernow, Fernihalgh, Fernihow and Fernehough, and these spelling variations were frequent, even between father and son. It was common to find the same individual referred to with different spellings of their surname. By example, the famous playwright William Shakespeare signed his name with different spellings and legal documents added further to the possible variations. “Shakespeare,” “Shakespere,” “Shakespear,” “Shakspere” and “Shaxspere” were all used in reference to this famous individual. Typically, scribes, church officials and the bearers of a name spelled words as they sounded rather than adhering to any spelling rules used today.
The Saxons were a Teutonic tribe originally from northern Germany who began to settle in England in about the year 400 A.D. Their first settlements were in Kent, on the south east coast. Gradually, they probed north and westward from Kent and during the next four hundred years forced the ancient Britons back into Wales and Cornwall to the west. They won territories as far north as Lancashire and Yorkshire,pushing the Britons into Cumbria and Southern Scotland. The Angles,another Teutonic tribe, occupied the eastern coast, the south folk in Suffolk, the north folk in Norfolk. The Angles sometimes invaded as far north as North umbria and the Scottish border. The Angle and Saxon cultures blended together as they came to dominate the country. For hundreds of years England was comprised of five independent Anglo -Saxon kingdoms until unification in the 9th century. By 1066, England, under Harold, was enjoying reasonable peace and prosperity. However, the Norman invasion from France and their victory at the Battle of Hastings meant that the Anglo-Saxon landowners lost their property to the invaders. The Saxons were restive under Norman rule, and many moved northward to the Midlands, Lancashire and Yorkshire, where Norman influence was less pervasive. Rebellious Norman nobles frequently joined them in their flight northward.
As peace was restored, the Fernihough surname emerged as that of a notable English family in the county of Staffordshire where they held a family seat. Later, in 1383 they were also shown on tax records when Richard de Fernyhalgh held in that same shire. The name moved westward into Cheshire during the next two or three centuries From their early beginnings, for the next few centuries, settling at such places as Doddington, (John, 1621), Chester,and moving north into Lancashire on Mersey side. The family name also acquired other estates or manors as branches established themselves in Sheffield. Major conflicts, such as the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487),and the Cromwellian Civil Wars (17th century), sometimes found family members to be in opposing camps, with conflicting interests.
Distinguished members of the family include Fernihough of Staffordshire.
The Great Migration
Turmoil at home made the New World appear attractive to many families in England. They immigrated to Canada, the United States, Australia, and some moved to continental Europe. Members of the Fernihough family risked the hazardous voyage to start a new life in new lands. This decision to emigrate was never made casually, for while there were hardships at home, the journey across the sea was so perilous that up to 40 percent of a ships’ passengers would not reach their destination.
By the time of the American Revolution (1775-1783), the colonial population had reached approximately 2.5 million people. Black slaves constituted roughly 22 percent of the total; about 250,000 were Scots-Irish; approximately 200,000 were Germans. Protestants formed the overwhelming majority of white people, although approximately 25,000Roman Catholics and about 1000 Jews also lived in the colonies.Approximately 50,000 people loyal to the British crown made their way north to Canada following the American Revolution. They were known as the United Empire Loyalists, and were granted lands in Nova Scotia,along the St. Lawrence River and along the Niagara Peninsula.
Royal Arms of England
Why three Leopards?
by Cecil Humphery-Smith FHS
Coatof Arms no 126, Summer 1983.
Swyrich Corporation. All Rights Reserved
As I have demonstrated elsewhere (Anglo-Norman Armory, 1976) the lion of Flanders led the field 1 as insignia of royal houses. It is not then,surprising to find the English kings bearing a single lion rampant as well. Whatever the lions of England may be called (Robert Viel, Archivum Heraldicum LXXII (1958, p. 18 et seq.); H. Stanford London, The Coat of Arms, vol. 2, p. 291 and Royal Beasts (1954)), the seal of “Willelmusfrater Henrici Regis” attached to a document dated before the winter of1163 (Facsimiles of Early Charters from Northamptonshire Collections,ed. F. M. Stenton, Northants Record Society Vol. IV, 1930, pp. 24-16) is undoubtedly for William Fitz Empress, brother of Henry II, who probably died 30th January 1163/4. (See also Sir Christopher Hatton’s Book of Seals, ed. L. C. Loyd and D. M. Stenton, Oxford 1950, pp. 299-300).
Although we have no direct evidence that King Henry I bore arms he must therefore have borne a single lion rampant which may well have been crowned. Following the descent of the arms borne by his son-in-law,married to his illegitimate daughter Elizabeth, Fergus Lord of Galloway(Coat of Arms No. 106, pp. 35-41) and the account of the famous enamel of Le Mans (Archive Héraldique Suisse and G. H. White have no doubt that he was armigerous to have given arms in this way. It is interesting to note also that the Anjou coat (which descends to the houses of Salisburyand of Bohun) like that of Galloway has a blue and not a red field.Regrettably, the other children of Henry I, legitimate and illegitimate,provide us with little evidence of the use of armorial bearings.Eleanor who married Alfonso XIII, King of Castile and Leon, has depicted on her tomb in the Huelgas monastery of the Cistercian nuns at Burgos, a thirteenth-century shield depicting three crowned leopards (lionspassant guardant) gold on red. Crowned leopards also appear as the English royal arms in the fifteenth-century Burgos armorial (El Libro dela Confradía de Santiago de Burgos, F. M. Pidal de Navascues, 1977)though with two and not three beasts. This number agrees with the two lions passant appearing on the seal of Henry II’s son John, Lord of Ireland and Count of Mortain (C. H. Hunter Blair, Archaeologia Aeliana,3rd ser. Vol. XVII (1920), p. 265 and 282-86 and the very important article by R. Viel, Archivum Heraldicum (1965), pp. 19-23). Francis Sandford, Genealogical History of the Kings and Queens of England (1677)pp. 81 and 57, illustrates the seals of John, as Lord of Ireland, and his natural son, Richard de Varenne (or de Chilham) respectively. Viel,Archivum Heraldicum (1956) p. 52 illustrates the relationship through John’s sister Matilda, who married Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, which leads to their son Henry’s use of two lions passant guardant (H. G.Ströhl, Deutsche Wappenrolle, (1897) p. 72) and the present day arms of the House of Brunswick, Gules, two lions passant guardant Or.
We can dismiss the suggestion that King Richard I’s first seal bore lions combattant. The seal of his uncle William FitzEmpress which repeats the device of the shield on the horse trappings removes that idea of the heraldry manuals once and for all. Both bore a rampant lion, in neither case appearing to be crowned.2 We must turn to the study of chivalricrites to the process of acquisition of armorial insignia along with knighthood to be able to understand the conclusions that can be drawn. Alogical application of these helps us to determine what arms King Henry II may have borne. As my late lamented friend M. Paul Adam-Evenrecalls in his study of the Reggio Emilia enamel (Archivum Heraldicum1954), there is great importance to be attached to the well known medieval custom by which a newly dubbed knight might receive the arms of his sponsor, though frequently with adequate differences (Dictionnaire Héraldique, P.C.A. Loizeau de Grandmaison (1851) pp. 399-403).3
In 1179 Hugh IV, Count of St. Pol in Artois, (died 1215) received armsfrom King Henry II (A. de Cardevacque, Histoire de l’abbaye de Cercamps,1878) “Quo a rege angliae (King Henry II) arma militaria assumpsi” when dubbed a knight by the King of England though one might take this to mean weapons. Douet d’Arcq (Collection de Sceaux 361) and Demay (SceauxArtois 70) illustrate two of Hugh’s seals showing the two leopards of England in 1190 and 1201. Demay (op. cit. 73) gives the two leopards of England impaled with the three wheatsheaves of Candavane for Hugh’s daughter in 1234. His sponsor in chivalry being King Henry II in person this must surely mean that Henry had already changed from the use of the single lion to two lions passant guardant. M. Paul Adam-Even (Revue Française d’Héraldique et Sigillographie, 1952) states that the Seneschal of Anjou was bearing two leopards within a bordure of escallops and the marshal raised a banner of his sovereign bearing the two leopards as arms. (R. Viel, “Les Armoires probables d’Henri IId’Angleterre”, Archivum Heraldicum, lxx (1956), pp 19-23).
Although seals only survive from about 1189, it is not improbable that John, knighted by his father in 1185 (Roger de Hovenden, Chronicles,(Rolls Series) Vol. II, p. 303) and invested with the lordship of Ireland, bore the two lions passant (but apparently not guardant — of Norse and Viking family culture in which the grandson was to be looked upon as the reincarnation of the spirit of his grandfather and understand why King Henry II and Richard I chose a single lion, the two lions watchful and symbolic of abundance being adopted to strengthen the idea of descent. It is absolutely impossible with such considerationsto pretend that the origins of coat armory have anything to do with descent from Charlemagne as has been propounded recently, (Beryl Platts,Origins of Heraldry, 1980) but with so many individuals called “the lion”, one cannot resist the temptation to suggest that these names derived from their armorial bearings. On the other hand, Henry II had been knighted in 1149 by his maternal uncle, King David of Scotland(Hovenden, Vol. I, p. 211; W. L. Warren, Henry II, p. 36 and R. H. C.Davis King Stephen, p. 107). David’s seal shows a single lion which he had probably adopted simultaneously with his kinsman the Count ofHolland. Florent III, Count of Holland, married Ada, sister of William the Lion, and their son Dirk VIII has the lion on his seal in 1198(Corpus Sigillorum Nederlandicorum 1937-40); “Heraldic Notes on theissue of Postage Stamps”, C. J. Holyoake, Family History Aug. 1976).
Henry “the young king” was under the tutelage of the great William the Marshal. He, his brothers Richard, Geoffrey, and John turned to Europe where with Philip Count of Flanders they continued to practise and gain renown at the tournaments after their King, Henry II, had banned the tournament in England. The young king William, the Lion of Scotland,became Richard’s close companion on the crusades, 10,000 marks having been paid to release him from his obligations to Henry II in 1189. (A.L. Poole, From Domesday Book to Magna Carta, Oxford History of England,1951, p. 279, quotes the Scottish chronicler Ford’s description of the friendship.) The third crusade had other relatives, close friends of Richard the Lionheart, who also bore lions on their shields. The successof that crusade amid so much defeat came temporarily in 1192 when Richard and his companions concluded an honourable peace with Saladin guaranteeing Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem. Did these“lions” bear similar arms because of a pact, a “brotherhood”?4 Can we suggest that the arms of Richard were Azure, a lion rampant Or and that,in the spirit of the age, he commemorated this event by taking three lions on the field of blood and the colour of his “lionheart” (Gules),making them watchful as leopards? — Except that red and gold may already have been the colours, as Henry II, himself knighted by King David of Scotland in 1148, conferred knighthood on Malcolm, King of Scotland, at Tours in 1159 (Hoveden, Chronicle Vol. 1, p. 217).
Yet again, we must recall that while John, having been knighted by his own father,Henry II, would not unnaturally take the same blazon, Richard wasknighted in 1173 by the King of France (Hovenden, op. cit. Vol. II, p.55), who probably bore gold on blue, yet Richard did not assume fleurs-de-lys. The tendency for the continuation of hereditary insignia had already become too well established and the fleur-de-lys would differ too much from the lion accepted as the symbol of his House. By the premise to which we have already referred it is clear that he retook the lion of his grandfather, Geoffrey Plantagenet. The young son of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, Henry and David, King of Scotland, in support of the former’s claim to the dukedom of Normandy, had concluded an important treaty just before this event in 1148. As second of the name,and reflecting his grandfather’s symbol, he chose two lions passant.During the crusades and while Richard was in captivity from 1191 to 1194the two lions reigned over England in the person of John, though under much constraint from Richard’s powerful officials. At this time perhaps the two lions were his. When Richard returned he had himself crowned fora second time at Winchester in 1194 (Jean de Pange, Le Roi Très Chrétien, p. 334) thus dismissing the usurpation of John and disengaging himself from his homage to the Emperor to whom he had stood a hostage.At the same time he decided upon a new seal indicating his lineal descent in the third order, differentiating himself from the others of his line, with three lions passant guardant.
However, if Richard had changed his arms as any direct influence of crusading symbolism or relationships, someone among the chroniclers of the Third Crusade would surely have recorded the fact. His brother-in-law, Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, was hereditarily enemy of the Staufen house which may account for the perversity of retaining two lions but Richard’s main political aims were always in France (not yet inevitably symbolised byfleurs-de-lys). Henry II could emphasize his succession to his maternal grandfather heraldically, Richard could reassert his status after his release from captivity.5
Although the three lions do not appear until the Great Seal of 1195 (L. Landon, Itinerary of Richard I, Pipe Roll Society, new series, xiii, 1935, App. A), it is also likely that Richard harkened back, albeit with some cynicism, to the allegiance he had given to the Staufen Emperor of the Germans. It is supposed that they bore, for a transitory period, three black passant lions. Henry V,the Lion of Saxony, was married to Matilda (or Maud) sister of Richard I. This Henry was the grandson of the Emperor Lothar. Only a few years earlier Canute VI of Denmark, about 1190, reflected his refusal as a boy, twenty years before, to renew his homage to the German Emperor and chose the Danish lions for the first time and perhaps for a similar reason of defiance.
But perhaps the arms of Ramon Berenguer (1157) were earlier established (F. de Sagarra Sigillografía Catalana (1915).Compare J. H. Round, Feudal England (1895, pp. 539-551). and R. Harmignies The Arms of Geoffrey d’Anjou (1980).In 1004, the Emperor Henry IV sent an ensign cum hasta signiferaducatum dedit to his brother-in-law, Henry of Luxembourg (F. L. Ganshof, Feudalism, tr. P. Grierson). See also the banner held by Harold at his“dubbing” in the Bayeux Tapestry.Though much later, see Chaucer’s Knight’s Tale — (Arcite and Paloman) —Wearing the self same arms in blazoned pride”. Keen, “Brotherhood in Arms”, History, XLVII(1962), pp. 1-17.Anstis (Aspilogia I — B.L.M.S. Stowe 655, fo.32) cites examples to suggest that new seals were cut when a Sovereign returned from a crusade. More revenue would accrue in resealing the charters made invalid!
Surname Variants of Fernihough
• Bernard Fernow (1851-1923) American Chief Forester of the USDA in the late 1800s; he believed that forests were part of the “great economy of nature”• The Ven. Bernard Fernyhough, Archdeacon of Oakham, England (1977 to 1999)
• Ernest Fernyhough (1908-1993) British Labour Party politician
• Karl Ludwig Fernow (1763-1808) German art critic and archaeologist
Surname Variants of Fernihough• Minnie Fernyhough, aged 27, who landed in America, in 1892
• William Fernyhough, aged 46, who immigrated to Seattle, Washington, in 1911
• William Fearnhead, aged 27, who settled in America from Dearne, England, in 1913
• Stanley Fernyhough, aged 21, who immigrated to America, in 1920
• Jack Fernyhough, aged 19, who immigrated to the United States, in 1923
Edward Stanley Fernihough (Grandfather)
Edward Stanley Fernihough born 1901 Tranmere, Birkenhead
birth certificate available upon request
In the 1911 English census, the boys are absent. Three of the girls are in school in Lancaster County (Liverpool, one presumes). The eldest children are also absent.
Liverpool Sheltering Home and Louisa Birt
Liverpool Sheltering Home and Louisa Birt Louisa Birt – Knowlton Home’s records are held by Barnardo’s: email: email@example.com; website: www.barnardos.org.uk
Knowlton Receiving Home, Knowlton, Quebec
Marchmont would be the name given to three of Annie MacPherson’s homes in Bellville.
British Home Children In Canada
John Fernihough (abt. 1853)
Edward Stanley Fernihough born 1901 Tranmere, Birkenhead
Notables for the Surname Fernihough
• Eric Crudgington Fernihough (1905-1938) British motorcycle racer in the 1927 Isle of Man TT, killed while attempting to break the motorcycle land-speed record at Gyón, Hungary
Jane Allonby and the children were on the 1901 census at 12 Westbank Rd Tranmere, Birkenhead. Census may have been done before our Grandfather was born (Oct). ref RG 13 3397 120 12.
-1891census showed John Charles Fernihough and Jane Allonby living at Silverdale,Lancs ref RG12 346 127 3, with only Mabel and John as children at that time(ancestry may have name spelled Fernchough?)
– Our Grandfather worked for a dairy farmer in Stratford until he ran away and went to visit Forence(Dolly) in Detroit, then went to join his brother Gordon Leslie, who was working on a farm out west (Waldorf Sask?)until he enlisted.
-WinifredEvelyn Fernihough married George Cowley, Middlesex ON, 1918.
-Dolly married Harry McColl, lived in Detroit (son Bill?)
-Winnifredmoved to Kentucky – son Gordon Leslie, daughter Winnifred Margaret Dunn (Margo)
-shortly after Winnifred and Gertrude came to visit us in the 60s, Gertrudemarried and moved to Johannesburg.
-Mabel(eldest of children) married Matthew Foggo, 1907, England
-John Charles (Jack), oldest brother, born 1890 moved to Moosejaw, Sask.
-Joseph, 3rd oldest, accountant, moved around NY, Chicago
Jane (Allonby) Fernihough died age 42, 1908 -> in 1911 the girls were in school, and possibly younger boys sent to the orphanage by then.
John Charles Fernihough (Great Grand Father)
John Charles Fernihough our great grandfather, was born in 1848. He was the youngest son of a wealthy tobacco merchant.
Baptism Record for Edward Cudgington Fernihough “Tobacco Merchant”, note spelling “Cudgington”
Baptism: 22 Apr 1845 St Peter, Liverpool, Lancs.Edward Cudgington Fernihough – [Child] of John Charles Fernihough & Elizabeth Pusey Born: 3 Oct 1844 Abode: Rodney St Occupation: Tobacco Merchant Baptised by: J. G. Headlam Curate Register: Baptisms 1844 -1846, Page 123, Entry 977 Source: LDS Film 93884
|Birth:||1853 – Liverpool, Lancashire, England, United Kingdom|
|Death:||1928 – Westmorland, England, United Kingdom|
|Parents:||John Charles Fernihough, Elizabeth Pusey Fernihough|
|Siblings:||EdwardCrudgington Fernihough, Elizabeth Pusey Fernihough, Joseph FrancisFernihough, <Private> Fernihough, <Private> Fernihough|
|Wife:||Jane Fernihough (born Allonby)|
|Children:||Mabel Mary Fernihough, John Charles Fernihough, Joseph Francis Fernihough, Gertrude Ferinhough, Winifred Evelyn Fernihough, Gordon Leslie Fernihough, Eric Crudgington Fernihough, <Edward Stanley> Fernihough|
John Charles Fernihough Family Tree
John Charles Fernihough (Great Great Grandfather)
|Death:||1868 – Wirral, Cheshire, England|
|Parents:||Joseph Fernihough, Anne Fernihough (born Taylor)|
|Wife:||Elizabeth Pusey Fernihough|
|Children:||ElizabethPusey Fernihough, Ginaton Fernihough, John Charles Fernihough, JosephFrancis Fernihough, Edward Fernihough, Edward Crudgington Fernihough|
|Siblings:||Joseph Fernihough, Anne Fernihough, Sarah Fernihough, Elizabeth Fernihough|
Warm Christian Love,
Here is a listing of some of the sources consulted when researching British surnames. The resources below directly or indirectly influenced the authors of our surname histories. Source materials have been chosen for their reliability and authenticity.
Bardsley, C.W. ADictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances.Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901.
Barrow, G.W.S., ed. TheCharters of David I: The Written Acts of David I King of Scots, 1124-53, and ofHis Son Henry, Earl of Northumberland, 1139-52. Woodbridge, UK: The BoydellPress, 1999.
Baxter, Angus. In Search of Your British andIrish Roots. 4th Ed.
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1999.
Bede, The Venerable. HistoriaEcclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (The Ecclesiastical History of the EnglishPeople). Available through Internet Medieval Sourcebook, the Fordham UniversityCenter for Medieval Studies.
Bell, Robert. The Book of Ulster Surnames.Belfast: Blackstaff,
1988. (ISBN-10: 0-85-640416-0)
Bullock, L.G. Historical Map of England andWales. Edinburgh:
Bartholomew and Son, 1971.
Burke, Sir Bernard. Burke’sGenealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry: Including AmericanFamilies with British Ancestry.(2 Vols.) London: Burke Publishing, 1939.
Burke, Sir Bernard. General Armory: of England,Scotland,
Ireland, and Wales. Ramsbury:Heraldry Today, 1989 (1884 edition)
Burke, SirBernard. Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baronetage, ThePrivy Council, Knightage and Companionage. London: Burke Publishing, 1921.
Burke, JohnBernard Ed. The Roll of Battle Abbey. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2005(1848). Chadwick, Nora Kershaw and J.X.W.P. Corcoran. The Celts. London:Penguin, 1970.
Cook, Chris. English historical facts,1603-1688. London:
Cottle, Basil. The Penguin Dictionary ofSurnames, 2nd ed.
London: Penguin, 1978.
Crispin, M. Jackson andLeonce Macary. Falaise Roll: Recording Prominent Companions of William Duke ofNormandy at the Conquest of England. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1985(1938). (ISBN: 9-78-080630-0801)
Debrett, J. Debrett’s Peerage and Titles ofCoutresy 1891. London:
Dean and Son, 1891
Holt, J.C. Ed. DomesdayStudies. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1987. (ISBN 0-85115-477-8)
Hopkins, Andrea.Knights: The Complete Story of the Age of Chivalry from Historical Fact toTales of Romance and Poetry. New York: Artabras, 1990. (ISBN 0-89660-013-0)
Humble, Richard. The Fall ofSaxon England. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1975. (ISBN 0-88029-987-8)
Ingram, Rev. James. Translator. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1823.
(Compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great in 1890).
Kamen, Henry. European Society, 1500-1700. London:
Hutchinson, 1984. (ISBN: 0-09-156991-5)
Le Patourel, John. The NormanEmpire. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. (ISBN 0-19-822525-3)
Leeson, Francis L. Dictionary of British Peerages. Baltimore:
Genealogical Publishing, 1986. (ISBN 0-8063-1121-5)
Lennard, Reginald. Rural England 1086-1135: A Study of Social and
Agrarian Conditions. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959.
Macaulay, Thomas Babington.History of England from the Accession of James the Second. 4 volumes. New York:Harper & Brothers, 1879.
Marcham, Frederick George. AConstitutional History of Modern England, 1485 to the Present. London: Harper& Brothers, 1960.
Markale, J. CelticCivilization. London: Gordon & Cremonesi, 1976.
Marshall, George William. Thegenealogist’s guide to printed pedigrees. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1885.
Mills, A.D. Dictionary ofEnglish Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991 (ISBN 0-19-869156-4)
Papworth , J.W. And A.W.Morant. Ordinary of British Armorials. London: T. Richards, 1874.
Elster , Robert J.International Who’s Who. London : Europa/ Routledge, Published annually since1935.
Fairbairn. Fairbairn’s Bookof Crests of the Families of Great Britain and Ireland. 4th ed. 2 volumes inone. Baltimore: Heraldic Book Company, 1968.
Hanks, Patricia. and FlaviaHodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. (ISBN0-19-211592-8)
Hinde, Thomas, Ed. The Domesday Book: England’sHeritage,
Then and Now. Surrey: ColourLibrary Books, 1995. (ISBN 1-85833-440-3)
Hitching, F.K and S.Hitching. References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602. Walton on Thames:1910 (ISBN 0-8063-0181-3)
Reaney P.H. And R.M. Wilson. A Dictionary of Surnames.
London: Routledge, 1991.
Shaw, William A. Knights ofEngland: : A Complete Record from the Earliest Time to the Present Day of theKnights of all the Orders of Chivalry in England, Scotland, Ireland, andKnights Bachelors. 2 Vols. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing , 1971 (reprintof 1906). (ISB: 080630443X )
Shirley, Evelyn Philip. Nobleand Gentle Men of England; or, Notes Touching The Arms and Descendants of theAncient Knightly and Gentle Houses of England: Arranged in their RespectiveCounties. Westminster: John Bowyer Nichols and Sons, 3rd Ed. 1866.
Thirsk ,Joan ed.et al. The Agrarian History of England and Wales. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press: 7 volumes.
Williams, Dr. Ann, and G.H. Martin eds. Domesday Book: A
Complete Translation. London: Penguin, 1992.
British History Online:http://www.british-history.ac.uk/ Library and Archives Canada: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/
United Kingdom NationalArchives: The National Archives (USA): http://www.archives.gov/
College of Arms (England):http://college-of-arms.gov.uk/
Where available we consultMedieval rolls or use their information as reprinted in secondary sources.
Assize Rolls: records from court sessions
Calendarium InquisitionumPost Mortem: Feudal inquiries, undertaken after the death of a feudal tenant inchief to establish what lands were held and who should succeed to them. Recordsexist from around 1240-1660.
Curia Regis Rolls (RotuliCuriae Regis): Rolls and Records of the Court held before the king’s Justices.Variously translated and published , London 1835),
Register of the Freemen ofYork: list of freemen from 13th-18th century, published by the Surtees Society,Francis Collins (editor)in 1897.
Historia Regum Britanniae (“TheHistory of the Kings of Britain”): a legendary account of British history,accredited to Geoffrey of Monmouth in around 1136.
Hundred Rolls ( Rotuli Hundredorum): various royal inquests, documents were held in the tower of London. Much was published in 1818Ragman Rolls: rolls of deeds on parchment in which the Scottish nobility and gentry subscribed allegiance to Edward I. of England, A. D. 1296.